8Ds of Problem Solving

8D - CSense

What is 8D Problem Solving?

8D problems solving is one of the basic and effective problem-solving tools. Here, the Ds refer to 8 disciplines – the 8 steps of managing a problem and preventing its recurrence.

8D Problem Solving
8 Steps of Problem Solving


During the 1980s, the Ford Motors was under the crisis – unable to cope up with the competition from the Japanese automobile companies. They requested Dr. Deming to support them to bring the company back to its effective and efficient way of manufacturing cars. This problem-solving approach was one of the key outcomes of their intervention. It has become a significant contributor in Ford’s journey towards business excellence.

The company found that their powertrain department was suffering severely with recurring quality problems. Hence, the company wanted to develop a robust approach to problem-solving where people from every related department to share their expertise to solve the problem in hand. They came up with a documented methodology called Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) in 1987. The TSOP contained 8 steps for effective problem solving with the involvement of team members.

With a tremendous success of this simple approach, Ford made it as part of its global standard for its operations and for its suppliers’ operations.

Upgradation to G8D

Ford did an upgrade to the 8D methodology during the late 1990s and now they call it as Global 8D or G8D. With this revision, they introduced preplanning as step D0 (D-Zero). In this preliminary step, the team will document the symptoms that warrant 8D application. It will initiate necessary Temporary Corrective Action (TCAs) or the emergency responses before initiating the 8D documentation. The team can also justify the necessity of going ahead with the full 8D process.

This upgrade also introduces the concept of ESCAPE POINTS. Escape points are the earliest detection points in the process which failed to detect or control the root cause from becoming a problem.

Applications of 8D Problem Solving Methodology

The methodology is simple and applicable to most of the problems faced by the industries. Hence, it is widely accepted and recommended by companies to their suppliers, especially in auto industry.

CSense 8D Problem Solving Training Program

Training Contents


  • Overview of 8D
  • Understanding a Problem
  • Need for Problem Solving
  • Managing a Problem Vs Problem Solving

Step by Step Approach to Problem Solving

  • Assessing the problem and its risk
  • Quick decision on 8D
  • Forming Effective Teams
  • CFT & CHT
  • Problem Identification
  • Definition – use of 5W2H questions
  • Reporting and Documentation
  • Damage control – Interim Actions and Communication plan
  • Root Cause Analysis
    • Brainstorming
    • Fishbone Analysis
    • FMEA
    • Is – Is Not Analysis
    • Process Mapping
  • Data and Statistical Analysis
    • Data collection
    • Graphical Tools
  • Why-Why Analysis
  • Validation of Root causes
    • Statistical Analysis
    • Evidence collection
  • Permanent Corrective Action
    • Solution Generation
    • Pilot Implementation
    • Solution Action Plan
  • Preventing Recurrence
    • Control Plan
    • SPC
    • Document control
    • Poka Yoke

Course Duration

  • 2 days – 16 Hours

Target Audience

  • Managers responsible for process improvements
  • Quality Managers, Internal and External Auditors
  • Shop floor managers and supervisors
  • Production and Maintenance Managers
  • Product Design Engineers
  • Research Engineers & Scientists